Bridges and Tunnels – New York City

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridges_and_tunnels_in_New_York_City

George Washington Bridge

List of bridges and tunnels in New York City

New York City‘s harbor and multiple waterways are what once made it the center of trade, but today they make it a city of bridges and tunnels. Over 2,000 of them provide uninterrupted vehicular movement throughout the region. Several agencies claim jurisdiction over this network of crossings including the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), DOT, New York State Department of Transportation, New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), Amtrak and the New York City Department of Parks.

Nearly all of the city’s major bridges and several of its tunnels, have broken or set records. The Holland Tunnel was the world’s first vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The George Washington Bridge and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge were the world’s longest suspension bridges when opened in 1931 and 1964 respectively.

Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridges_and_tunnels_in_New_York_City

 

George Washington Bridge (Hudson River)

The George Washington Bridge – known informally as the GW Bridge, the GWB, the GW, or the George – is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River, connecting the Washington Heights neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City to Fort Lee, New Jersey, in the United States.

The bridge sits near the sites of Fort Washington (in New York) and Fort Lee (in New Jersey), which were fortified positions used by General George Washington and his American forces as they attempted to deter the occupation of New York City in 1776 during the American Revolutionary War. Unsuccessful, Washington evacuated Manhattan by crossing between the two forts.

Construction on the bridge began in October 1927 as a project of the Port of New York Authority.

The bridge was dedicated on October 24, 1931, and opened to traffic the following day.   The George Washington Bridge, with a span of 4,760 feet (1,450 m) in total – including a main span of 3,500 feet (1,100 m) – was the longest main bridge span in the world at the time, at nearly double the 1,850 feet (560 m) of the previous record holder, the Ambassador Bridge in Detroit. It held this title until the opening of the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937.

The original design for the towers of the bridge called for them to be encased in concrete and granite. However, because of cost considerations during the Great Depression and favorable aesthetic critiques of the bare steel towers, this was never done.

More at the Source:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington_Bridge

 

Verrazano Narrows Bridge (New York Bay)

The Verrazano–Narrows Bridge (sometimes called simply the Verrazano Bridge) is a double-decked suspension bridge in the U.S. state of New York that connects the New York City boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn. It spans the Narrows, a body of water connecting the relatively protected upper bay with the larger, wide open lower bay.

The bridge is named for the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, whose name is misspelled on the bridge, as well as for the Narrows. In 1524, while in the service of Francis I of France, Verrazzano became the first European to enter New York Harbor and the Hudson River.  It has a central span of 4,260 feet (1,298 m) and was the longest suspension bridge in the world at the time of its completion in 1964, surpassing the Golden Gate Bridge by 60 feet, until it was in turn surpassed by 366 feet by the Humber Bridge in the United Kingdom in 1981. It has the eleventh longest main span in the world, while retaining its place as the longest bridge span in the Americas.

Fort Lafayette, an island coastal fortification in New York Harbor, built next to Fort Hamilton at the southern tip of what is now Bay Ridge, was destroyed as part of the bridge’s construction in 1960; the Brooklyn-side bridge pillars now occupy the fort’s former foundation.

Because of the height of the towers (693 ft or 211 m) and their distance apart (4,260 ft or 1,298 m), the curvature of the Earth’s surface had to be taken into account when designing the bridge—the towers are 1 58 inches (41.275 mm) farther apart at their tops than at their bases; they are not parallel to each other.

More at the Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrazano%E2%80%93Narrows_Bridge

 

Spuyten Duyvil Bridge  (Harlem River)

The Spuyten Duyvil Bridge is a swing bridge that carries Amtrak‘s Empire Corridor line across the Spuyten Duyvil Creek between Manhattan and the Bronx, in New York City. The bridge is located at the northern tip of Manhattan where the Spuyten Duyvil Creek meets the Hudson River, approximately 1,000 feet (300 m) to the west of the Henry Hudson Bridge. It was built to carry two tracks, but now carries only a single track.

A wooden railroad bridge across the Spuyten Duyvil was first constructed by the New York & Hudson River Railroad in 1849.   The current steel bridge was designed by Robert Giles and constructed in 1900; the piers rest on pile foundations in the riverbed.

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